University of California, Riverside

Center for Healthy Communities



Bruce G. Link


Bruce G. Link

Distinguished Professor of Public Policy and Sociology
Ph.D., Columbia University

Bruce Link

Bruce Link, Ph.D. is a distinguished professor of public policy and sociology at the University of California, Riverside. His interests are centered on topics in psychiatric and social epidemiology as they bear on policy issues. He has written on the connection between socioeconomic status and health, homelessness, violence, stigma, and discrimination. With Jo Phelan, he has advanced the theory of social conditions as fundamental causes of disease.

Currently he is conducting research on the life course origins of health inequalities by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, the consequences of social stigma for the life chances of people who are subject to stigma, and on evaluating intervention efforts aimed at reducing mental illness stigma in children attending middle school.

Selected Publications

  • Schneeberger AR, Huber CG, Seixas A, Muenzenmaier KH, Lang UE, Castille D, Larkin S, Link BG. Alcohol consumption and use of health care services in people with severe mental illness and stressful childhood experiences. J Addict Dis. 2017;36(2):97-104. doi: 10.1080/10550887.2017.1280311. PubMed PMID: 28103157.
  • Schneeberger AR, Huber CG, Lang UE, Muenzenmaier KH, Castille D, Jaeger M, Seixas A, Sowislo J, Link BG. Effects of assisted outpatient treatment and health care services on psychotic symptoms. Soc Sci Med. 2017;175:152-160. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.01.007. PubMed PMID: 28092756.
  • Fischbach RL, Harris MJ, Ballan MS, Fischbach GD, Link BG. Is there concordance in attitudes and beliefs between parents and scientists about autism spectrum disorder? Autism. 2016;20(3):353-363. doi: 10.1177/1362361315585310. PubMed PMID: 26014839.
  • Branstrom R, Hatzenbuehler ML, Pachankis JE, Link BG. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Preventable Disease: A Fundamental Cause Perspective. Am J Public Health. 2016;106(6):1109-1115. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303051. PubMed PMID: 26985608.
  • Prins SJ, Skeem JL, Mauro C, Link BG. Criminogenic factors, psychotic symptoms, and incident arrests among people with serious mental illnesses under intensive outpatient treatment. Law Hum Behav. 2015;39(2):177-188. doi: 10.1037/lhb0000104. PubMed PMID: 25133918; PMCID: PMC4363036.
  • Muenzenmaier KH, Seixas AA, Schneeberger AR, Castille DM, Battaglia J, Link BG. Cumulative Effects of Stressful Childhood Experiences on Delusions and Hallucinations. J Trauma Dissociation. 2015;16(4):442-462. doi: 10.1080/15299732.2015.1018475. PubMed PMID: 25895104.
  • Masters RK, Link BG, Phelan JC. Trends in education gradients of 'preventable' mortality: a test of fundamental cause theory. Soc Sci Med. 2015;127:19-28. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.10.023. PubMed PMID: 25556675; PMCID: PMC4420623.
  • March D, Williams J, Wells S, Eimicke JP, Teresi JA, Almonte C, Link BG, Findley SE, Palmas W, Carrasquillo O, Luchsinger JA. Discrimination and Depression among Urban Hispanics with Poorly Controlled Diabetes. Ethn Dis. 2015;25(2):130-137. PubMed PMID: 26118138.
  • Link BG, Wells J, Phelan JC, Yang L. Understanding the importance of "symbolic interaction stigma": How expectations about the reactions of others adds to the burden of mental illness stigma. Psychiatr Rehabil J. 2015;38(2):117-124. doi: 10.1037/prj0000142. PubMed PMID: 26075528; PMCID: PMC5328656.
  • DeVylder JE, Lukens EP, Link BG, Lieberman JA. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among adults with psychotic experiences: data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72(3):219-225. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.2663. PubMed PMID: 25715312.
  • Chae DH, Clouston S, Hatzenbuehler ML, Kramer MR, Cooper HL, Wilson SM, Stephens-Davidowitz SI, Gold RS, Link BG. Association between an Internet-Based Measure of Area Racism and Black Mortality. PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0122963. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0122963. PubMed PMID: 25909964; PMCID: PMC4409363.
  • Zahran S, Breunig IM, Link BG, Snodgrass JG, Weiler S, Mielke HW. Maternal exposure to hurricane destruction and fetal mortality. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2014;68(8):760-766. doi: 10.1136/jech-2014-203807. PubMed PMID: 24811774.
  • Zahran S, Breunig IM, Link BG, Snodgrass JG, Weiler S. A quasi-experimental analysis of maternal altitude exposure and infant birth weight. Am J Public Health. 2014;104 Suppl 1:S166-174. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301725. PubMed PMID: 24354824; PMCID: PMC4011114.
  • Yang LH, Thornicroft G, Alvarado R, Vega E, Link BG. Recent advances in cross-cultural measurement in psychiatric epidemiology: utilizing 'what matters most' to identify culture-specific aspects of stigma. Int J Epidemiol. 2014;43(2):494-510. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyu039. PubMed PMID: 24639447.
  • Stuber JP, Rocha A, Christian A, Link BG. Conceptions of mental illness: attitudes of mental health professionals and the general public. Psychiatr Serv. 2014;65(4):490-497. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201300136. PubMed PMID: 24430508; PMCID: PMC4028068.
  • Rubin MS, Clouston S, Link BG. A fundamental cause approach to the study of disparities in lung cancer and pancreatic cancer mortality in the United States. Soc Sci Med. 2014;100:54-61. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.10.026. PubMed PMID: 24444839.
  • Phelan JC, Link BG, Zelner S, Yang LH. Direct-to-Consumer Racial Admixture Tests and Beliefs About Essential Racial Differences. Soc Psychol Q. 2014;77(3):296-318. doi: 10.1177/0190272514529439. PubMed PMID: 25870464; PMCID: PMC4392852.
  • Masters RK, Reither EN, Powers DA, Yang YC, Burger AE, Link BG. Masters et al. respond. Am J Public Health. 2014;104(4):e5-6. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.301916. PubMed PMID: 24524518; PMCID: PMC4025705.
  • Masters RK, Powers DA, Link BG. The authors reply. Am J Epidemiol. 2014;179(4):530-532. PubMed PMID: 24627920; PMCID: PMC3908631.
  • Link BG, Phelan J. Stigma power. Soc Sci Med. 2014;103:24-32. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.07.035. PubMed PMID: 24507908; PMCID: PMC4451051.
  • Hatzenbuehler ML, Link BG. Introduction to the special issue on structural stigma and health. Soc Sci Med. 2014;103:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.12.017. PubMed PMID: 24445152.
  • Geller A, Fagan J, Tyler T, Link BG. Aggressive policing and the mental health of young urban men. Am J Public Health. 2014;104(12):2321-2327. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.302046. PubMed PMID: 25322310; PMCID: PMC4232139.
  • Crawford ND, Galea S, Ford CL, Latkin C, Link BG, Fuller C. The relationship between discrimination and high-risk social ties by race/ethnicity: examining social pathways of HIV risk. J Urban Health. 2014;91(1):151-161. doi: 10.1007/s11524-013-9806-y. PubMed PMID: 23749458; PMCID: PMC3907620.
  • Clouston SA, Rubin MS, Colen CG, Link BG. Social inequalities in suicide: the role of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180(7):696-704. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwu191. PubMed PMID: 25167863.
  • Angermeyer MC, Matschinger H, Link BG, Schomerus G. Public attitudes regarding individual and structural discrimination: two sides of the same coin? Soc Sci Med. 2014;103:60-66. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.11.014. PubMed PMID: 24507911.
  • Yang LH, Purdie-Vaughns V, Kotabe H, Link BG, Saw A, Wong G, Phelan JC. Culture, threat, and mental illness stigma: identifying culture-specific threat among Chinese-American groups. Soc Sci Med. 2013;88:56-67. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.03.036. PubMed PMID: 23702210; PMCID: PMC4043281.
  • Saldana-Ruiz N, Clouston SA, Rubin MS, Colen CG, Link BG. Fundamental causes of colorectal cancer mortality in the United States: understanding the importance of socioeconomic status in creating inequality in mortality. Am J Public Health. 2013;103(1):99-104. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.300743. PubMed PMID: 23153135; PMCID: PMC3518351.
  • Phelan JC, Link BG, Feldman NM. The Genomic Revolution and Beliefs about Essential Racial Differences: A Backdoor to Eugenics? Am Sociol Rev. 2013;78(2):167-191. doi: 10.1177/0003122413476034. PubMed PMID: 24855321; PMCID: PMC4026366.
  • Masters RK, Reither EN, Powers DA, Yang YC, Burger AE, Link BG. The impact of obesity on US mortality levels: the importance of age and cohort factors in population estimates. Am J Public Health. 2013;103(10):1895-1901. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301379. PubMed PMID: 23948004; PMCID: PMC3780738.
  • Masters RK, Powers DA, Link BG. Obesity and US mortality risk over the adult life course. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(5):431-442. doi: 10.1093/aje/kws325. PubMed PMID: 23380043.
  • Masters RK, Powers DA, Link BG. The authors reply. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178(2):321-323. PubMed PMID: 24024240.
  • Link BG. It is time to change our cultural context. Invited commentary on...Evaluation of England's Time to Change programme. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 2013;55:s106-107. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.113.127431. PubMed PMID: 23553691.
  • Keyes KM, March D, Link BG, Chilcoat HD, Susser E. Do socio-economic gradients in smoking emerge differently across time by gender? Implications for the tobacco epidemic from a pregnancy cohort in California, USA. Soc Sci Med. 2013;76(1):101-106. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.10.011. PubMed PMID: 23186639; PMCID: PMC3612831.
  • Hatzenbuehler ML, Phelan JC, Link BG. Stigma as a fundamental cause of population health inequalities. Am J Public Health. 2013;103(5):813-821. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.301069. PubMed PMID: 23488505; PMCID: PMC3682466.
  • Hatzenbuehler ML, Phelan JC, Link BG. Hatzenbuehler et al. respond. Am J Public Health. 2013;103(8):e4-5. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301430. PubMed PMID: 23763427; PMCID: PMC4007864.
  • Hansen HB, Donaldson Z, Link BG, Bearman PS, Hopper K, Bates LM, Cheslack-Postava K, Harper K, Holmes SM, Lovasi G, Springer KW, Teitler JO. Independent review of social and population variation in mental health could improve diagnosis in DSM revisions. Health Aff (Millwood). 2013;32(5):984-993. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2011.0596. PubMed PMID: 23614899; PMCID: PMC3837624.
  • Glass JE, Mowbray OP, Link BG, Kristjansson SD, Bucholz KK. Alcohol stigma and persistence of alcohol and other psychiatric disorders: a modified labeling theory approach. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013;133(2):685-692. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.08.016. PubMed PMID: 24071569; PMCID: PMC3980578.
  • Galea S, Link BG. Six paths for the future of social epidemiology. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178(6):843-849. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwt148. PubMed PMID: 24008899; PMCID: PMC3775546.
  • Galea S, Link BG. Galea and Link respond to "Pathologies of social epidemiology," "Social epidemiology and scientific realism," and "Off-roading with social epidemiology". Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178(6):864. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwt147. PubMed PMID: 24008914.
  • Yang LH, Lo G, WonPat-Borja AJ, Singla DR, Link BG, Phillips MR. Effects of labeling and interpersonal contact upon attitudes towards schizophrenia: implications for reducing mental illness stigma in urban China. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2012;47(9):1459-1473. doi: 10.1007/s00127-011-0452-y. PubMed PMID: 22075964; PMCID: PMC3697873.
  • WonPat-Borja AJ, Yang LH, Link BG, Phelan JC. Eugenics, genetics, and mental illness stigma in Chinese Americans. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2012;47(1):145-156. doi: 10.1007/s00127-010-0319-7. PubMed PMID: 21079911; PMCID: PMC3141094.
  • Wang A, Clouston SA, Rubin MS, Colen CG, Link BG. Fundamental causes of colorectal cancer mortality: the implications of informational diffusion. Milbank Q. 2012;90(3):592-618. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0009.2012.00675.x. PubMed PMID: 22985282; PMCID: PMC3479384.
  • Link BG, Epperson MW, Perron BE, Castille DM, Yang LH. Arrest outcomes associated with outpatient commitment in New York State. Psychiatr Serv. 2011;62(5):504-508. doi: 10.1176/ps.62.5.pss6205_0504. PubMed PMID: 21532076.
  • Rubin MS, Colen CG, Link BG. Examination of inequalities in HIV/AIDS mortality in the United States from a fundamental cause perspective. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(6):1053-1059. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2009.170241. PubMed PMID: 20403885; PMCID: PMC2866621.
  • Phelan JC, Sinkewicz M, Castille DM, Huz S, Muenzenmaier K, Link BG. Effectiveness and outcomes of assisted outpatient treatment in New York State. Psychiatr Serv. 2010;61(2):137-143. doi: 10.1176/ps.2010.61.2.137. PubMed PMID: 20123818.
  • Phelan JC, Link BG, Tehranifar P. Social conditions as fundamental causes of health inequalities: theory, evidence, and policy implications. J Health Soc Behav. 2010;51 Suppl:S28-40. doi: 10.1177/0022146510383498. PubMed PMID: 20943581.
  • Pescosolido BA, Martin JK, Long JS, Medina TR, Phelan JC, Link BG. "A disease like any other"? A decade of change in public reactions to schizophrenia, depression, and alcohol dependence. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167(11):1321-1330. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.09121743. PubMed PMID: 20843872; PMCID: PMC4429867.
  • Interian A, Ang A, Gara MA, Link BG, Rodriguez MA, Vega WA. Stigma and depression treatment utilization among Latinos: utility of four stigma measures. Psychiatr Serv. 2010;61(4):373-379. doi: 10.1176/ps.2010.61.4.373. PubMed PMID: 20360276; PMCID: PMC3222155.
  • Boyd JE, Katz EP, Link BG, Phelan JC. The relationship of multiple aspects of stigma and personal contact with someone hospitalized for mental illness, in a nationally representative sample. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2010;45(11):1063-1070. doi: 10.1007/s00127-009-0147-9. PubMed PMID: 19823756; PMCID: PMC2956056.
  • Yang LH, Link BG. Comparing diagnostic methods for mental disorders in China. Lancet. 2009;373(9680):2002-2004. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61091-6. PubMed PMID: 19524763.
  • Yang LH, Corsini-Munt S, Link BG, Phelan JC. Beliefs in traditional Chinese medicine efficacy among Chinese Americans: implications for mental health service utilization. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2009;197(3):207-210. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3181999513. PubMed PMID: 19282690; PMCID: PMC4011554.
  • Tehranifar P, Neugut AI, Phelan JC, Link BG, Liao Y, Desai M, Terry MB. Medical advances and racial/ethnic disparities in cancer survival. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18(10):2701-2708. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0305. PubMed PMID: 19789367; PMCID: PMC3665008.
  • Shostak S, Freese J, Link BG, Phelan JC. The Politics of the Gene: Social Status and Beliefs about Genetics for Individual Outcomes. Soc Psychol Q. 2009;72(1):77-93. PubMed PMID: 25400308; PMCID: PMC4228480.
  • Link BG, Phelan J. The social shaping of health and smoking. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009;104 Suppl 1:S6-10. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.03.002. PubMed PMID: 19477607.
  • Yang LH, Phelan JC, Link BG. Stigma and beliefs of efficacy towards traditional Chinese medicine and Western psychiatric treatment among Chinese-Americans. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2008;14(1):10-18. doi: 10.1037/1099-9809.14.1.10. PubMed PMID: 18229996.
  • Stuber J, Galea S, Link BG. Smoking and the emergence of a stigmatized social status. Soc Sci Med. 2008;67(3):420-430. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.03.010. PubMed PMID: 18486291; PMCID: PMC4006698.
  • Phelan JC, Link BG, Dovidio JF. Stigma and prejudice: one animal or two? Soc Sci Med. 2008;67(3):358-367. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.03.022. PubMed PMID: 18524444; PMCID: PMC4007574.
  • Link BG, Phelan JC, Miech R, Westin EL. The resources that matter: fundamental social causes of health disparities and the challenge of intelligence. J Health Soc Behav. 2008;49(1):72-91. doi: 10.1177/002214650804900106. PubMed PMID: 18418986.
  • Link BG. Epidemiological sociology and the social shaping of population health. J Health Soc Behav. 2008;49(4):367-384. doi: 10.1177/002214650804900401. PubMed PMID: 19181044.
  • Anglin DM, Alberti PM, Link BG, Phelan JC. Racial differences in beliefs about the effectiveness and necessity of mental health treatment. Am J Community Psychol. 2008;42(1-2):17-24. doi: 10.1007/s10464-008-9189-5. PubMed PMID: 18612808; PMCID: PMC4009685.
  • Yang LH, Kleinman A, Link BG, Phelan JC, Lee S, Good B. Culture and stigma: adding moral experience to stigma theory. Soc Sci Med. 2007;64(7):1524-1535. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.11.013. PubMed PMID: 17188411.
  • Perlick DA, Miklowitz DJ, Link BG, Struening E, Kaczynski R, Gonzalez J, Manning LN, Wolff N, Rosenheck RA. Perceived stigma and depression among caregivers of patients with bipolar disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 2007;190:535-536. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.105.020826. PubMed PMID: 17541117.
  • Hatch SL, Feinstein L, Link BG, Wadsworth ME, Richards M. The continuing benefits of education: adult education and midlife cognitive ability in the British 1946 birth cohort. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2007;62(6):S404-414. PubMed PMID: 18079429; PMCID: PMC3159532.
  • Stueve A, Dash K, O'Donnell L, Tehranifar P, Wilson-Simmons R, Slaby RG, Link BG. Rethinking the bystander role in school violence prevention. Health Promot Pract. 2006;7(1):117-124. doi: 10.1177/1524839905278454. PubMed PMID: 16410428.
  • Miech RA, Kumanyika SK, Stettler N, Link BG, Phelan JC, Chang VW. Trends in the association of poverty with overweight among US adolescents, 1971-2004. JAMA. 2006;295(20):2385-2393. doi: 10.1001/jama.295.20.2385. PubMed PMID: 16720824.
  • Link BG, Phelan JC. Stigma and its public health implications. Lancet. 2006;367(9509):528-529. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68184-1. PubMed PMID: 16473129.
  • Anglin DM, Link BG, Phelan JC. Racial differences in stigmatizing attitudes toward people with mental illness. Psychiatr Serv. 2006;57(6):857-862. doi: 10.1176/ps.2006.57.6.857. PubMed PMID: 16754764.
  • Abraido-Lanza AF, White K, Armbrister AN, Link BG. Health status, activity limitations, and disability in work and housework among Latinos and non-Latinos with arthritis: an analysis of national data. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;55(3):442-450. doi: 10.1002/art.21981. PubMed PMID: 16739212; PMCID: PMC3606810.

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